Original Paper

UDC 622.23.05 A.Yu. Voronov, Yu.E. Voronov, I.S. Syrkin, S.V. Nazarenko, I.F. Yunusov, 2022

ISSN 0041-5790 (Print) ISSN 2412-8333 (Online) Ugol Russian Coal Journal, 2022, S12, pp. 30-36





Voronov A.Yu.1, Voronov Yu.E.1, Syrkin I.S., Nazarenko S.V., Yunusov I.F.

1Gorbachevs Kuzbass State Technical University, Kemerovo, 650000, Russian Federation

2 KAMAZ, Naberezhnye Chelny, 423827, Russian Federation

Authors Information

Voronov A.Yu., PhD (Engineering),Associate Professorof Department of Automobile Transportation, e-mail:

Voronov Yu.E., Doctor of Engineering Sciences, Professor, Head of Department of Automobile Transportation,


Syrkin I.S., PhD (Engineering),Associate Professor Department of Information and Automated Production Systems

Nazarenko S.V., Chief Designer of Innovative Vehicles

Yunusov I.F., Head of Autonomous Vehicle and ADAS Vehicle Development Group


In open pit mining, the "human factor" is still present to a large extent, seriously hindering the development of the industry. All this often leads to a decrease in mining productivity and high costs. Unmanned (or autonomous) haulage systems, which have been used at open-pit mines for more than 10 years, are capable of correcting the situation. Most of the equipment at such mines is remotely controlled by electronics, for which these mines are sometimes called "smart mines". The elimination of the "human factor" from the operation should theoretically increase its safety and productivity, as well as reduce the operating costs of its implementation. However, despite the clear advantages of this technology, its spreading in the world is limited. This suggests that there are problems hindering its development. In this article, a review and analysis of the experience in the industrial implementation of unmanned haulage in open-pit mining are made in order to identify existing problems and possible directions for further development. The prerequisites, a brief history and some results of the implementation of unmanned haulage systems in open-pit mining, its main types, constituent elements and manufacturers are outlined, as well as the existing problems and expected directions of development are highlighted.


Open-pit mine, Human factor, Autonomous mining truck, Automation, Unmanned haulage, Remote control.


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This work was financially supported by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of Russian Federation under Agreement 075-15-2022-1198 dated 30.09.2022 with the Gorbachev Kuzbass State Technical University on complex scientific and technical program of full innovation cycle: "Development and implementation of complex technologies in the areas of exploration and extraction of solid minerals, industrial safety, bioremediation, creation of new deep conversion products from coal raw materials while consistently reducing the environmental impact and risks to human life" (the "Clean Coal - Green Kuzbass" Integrated Scientific and Technical Programme of the Full Innovation Cycle) as part of implementing the project "Development and creation of an unmanned shuttle-type mine truck with a payload of 220 tonnes" in terms of research, development and experimental-design work.

For citation

Voronov A.Yu., Voronov Yu.E., Syrkin I.S., Nazarenko S.V. & Yunusov I.F. A review of unmanned haulage systems at open-pit mines.Ugol, 2022, (S12), pp. 30-36. (In Russ.). DOI: 10.18796/0041-5790-2022-S12-30-36.

Paper info

Received November 1, 2022

Reviewed November 15, 2022

Accepted November 30, 2022