hi boy
"Ugol" magazin


Original Paper

UDC 343.823.3 © V.A. Shestak, E.A. Postoeva, 2022

ISSN 0041-5790 (Print) • ISSN 2412-8333 (Online) • Ugol’ – Russian Coal Journal, 2022, № 8, pp. 95-99

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18796/0041-5790-2022-8-95-99


Criminal liability for illegal coal mining: Russian and foreign legal regulation


Shestak V.A.1, Postoeva E.A.1

1MGIMO University, Moscow, 119454, Russian Federation

Authors Information

Shestak V.A., Doctor of Juridical Sciences, Associate Professor, Professor, е-mail: shestak.v.a@mgimo.ru

Postoeva E.A., Master of Jurisprudence, e-mail: postoeva.j@yandex.ru


The article discusses the issues of criminal prosecution for illegal coal mining. The authors analyze the current Russian and foreign legislation. Russian criminal law considers illegal coal mining as an illegal enterprise. In China, Indonesia, India and Australia, there are separate laws aimed at comprehensive regulation of mining. These laws contain provisions on criminal liability, which can be imposed on both individuals and legal entities. Fines and imprisonment are the main types of punishments imposed for illegal coal mining. In comparison with the criminal norms of the leading countries on coal mining, Russian criminal legislation in this area is characterized by the absence of special norms on illegal coal mining and the imposition of a more lenient punishment.


Illegal coal mining, Criminal liability, Licensing, Imprisonment, Fine, China, Indonesia, India, Australia.


1. Bojczov A.I. Property crimes. St. Petersburg, Yuridicheskii` Centr - Press Publ., 2002, 773 p. (in Russ.)

2. Zhevlakov E.N. On differentiation of economic and environmental crimes: theory, legislation, practice. Ugolovnoe parvo, 2017, (2), pp. 63-69. (In Russ.).

3. Vinokurov V.N. Infringement upon environmental objects: qualification and construction of norms in the Special Part of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava, 2020, (4), pp. 77-87. (In Russ.).

4. Yani P.S. Illegal mining of commonly occurring minerals is not a theft. Zakonnost`, 2020, (9), pp. 34-39. (In Russ.).

5. Andrews-Speed P., Yang M., Shen L. & Cao S. The regulation of China’s township and village coal mines: a study of complexity and ineffectiveness. Journal of Cleaner Production, 2003, (11), pp. 185–196.

6. Local coal boss in China gets 20-year jail term for corruption. [Electronic resource]. Available at: https://www.reuters.com/article/china-coal-corruption-idUSL3E7JF08Y20110815 (accessed 15.07.2022).

7. Rohman A. & Masnyur S. & M. Politica of Criminal Law. The Importance of Revision of Mineral and Coal Law: Who Is Benefitted. Journal of Politics and Law, 2020, Vol. 13, (4), pp. 156-163.

8. Coal production target by the government of Indonesia for 2017 to 2022. [Electronic resource]. Available at: https://www.statista.com/statistics/1091686/indonesia-governmental-coal-production-target/ (accessed 15.07.2022).

9. Birawa A. & Tedjosaputro L. Criminal law enforcement on mineral and coal mining businesses. MAGISTRA Law Review, 2020, Vol. 01, (02), pp. 114-136.

10. Hairi P.J. Law enforcement against the criminal act of illegal mining. A brief study of actual and strategic issues, 2021, Vol. XIII, (15), pp. 1-6.

11. Lahiri-Dutt K. Illegal Coal Mining in Eastern India: Rethinking Legitimacy and Limits of Justice. Economic and Political Weekly, 2007, (42), pp. 57-66.

12. De Valck J. Does coal mining benefit local communities in the long run? A sustainability perspective on regional Queensland, Australia. Resources Policy, 2021, pp. 1-37.

For citation

Shestak V.A. &Postoeva E.A. Criminal liability for illegal coal mining: Russian and foreign legal regulation. Ugol’, 2022, (8), pp. 95-99. (In Russ.). DOI: 10.18796/0041-5790-2022-8-95-99.

Paper info

Received July 4, 2022

Reviewed July 18, 2022

Accepted July 25, 2022


Hot from the press